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Vigna mungo

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Vigna mungo
Dry urad beans
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Vigna
Species:
V. mungo
Binomial name
Vigna mungo
Synonyms[1]
  • Azukia mungo (L.) Masam.
  • Phaseolus hernandezii Savi
  • Phaseolus mungo L.
  • Phaseolus roxburghii Wight & Arn.

Vigna mungo, also known as black gram, urad bean, urid bean, matimah, matikolai, mash kalai, maas/kalo daal, uzhunnu parippu, ulundu parippu, minapa pappu, uddu, or black matpe, is a bean grown in South Asia. Like its relative, the mung bean, it has been reclassified from the Phaseolus to the Vigna genus. The product sold as black lentil is usually the whole urad bean, whereas the split bean (the interior being white) is called white lentil. It should not be confused with the much smaller true black lentil (Lens culinaris).

Black gram originated in South Asia, where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. It is very widely used in Indian cuisine. In India the black gram is one of the important pulses grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. This crop is extensively grown in the southern part of India and the northern part of Bangladesh and Nepal. In Bangladesh and Nepal it is known as mash daal. It is a popular daal (legume) side dish in South Asia that goes with curry and rice as a platter. Black gram has also been introduced to other tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Fiji, Mauritius, Myanmar and Africa mainly by Indian immigrants during the Indian indenture system.

Description[edit]

It is an erect, suberect or trailing, densely hairy, annual bush. The tap root produces a branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules. The pods are narrow, cylindrical and up to six cm long. The plant grows 30–100 cm with large hairy leaves and 4–6 cm seed pods.[2] While the urad dal was, along with the mung bean, originally placed in Phaseolus, it has since been transferred to Vigna.[citation needed]

Cooking[edit]

Dry split urad beans.
Crispy masala dosa made from batter
Dal makhani, a popular Indian dish with Vigna mungo as its main ingredient
Kalai ruti, breakfast served with different vortas and chicken curry in Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Idli and medu vada, a very common breakfast in South India

Vigna mungo is popular in Northern India, largely used to make dal from the whole or split, dehusked seeds. The bean is boiled and eaten whole or, after splitting, made into dal; prepared like this it has an unusual mucilaginous texture.

Its usage is quite common in Dogra Cuisine of Jammu and Lower Himachal region. The key ingredient of Dal Maddhra or Maah Da Maddhra dish served in Dogri Dhaam of Jammu is Vigna mungo lentil.[3] Similarly, another dish Teliya Maah popular in Jammu & Kangra uses this lentil.[4] Traditionally, Vigna Mungo Lentil is used for preparing Dogra style Khichdi during Panj Bhikham and Makar Sankranti festival in Jammu and Lower Himachal. Besides, fermented Vigna Mungo paste is also used to prepare Lakhnapuri Bhalle or Lakhanpuri Laddu ( a popular street food of Jammu region).

In Uttarakhand Cuisine, Vigna mungo is used for preparing traditional dish called Chainsu or Chaisu.

In North Indian cuisine, it is used as an ingredient of Dal makhani, which is a Modern restaurant style adaptation of Traditional Sabut Urad Dal of Northern India.

In Bengal, it is used in kalai ruti, biulir dal. In Rajasthan, It is one of the ingredients of Panchmel dal which is usually consumed with bati.

It is also extensively used in South Indian culinary preparations. Black gram is one of the key ingredients in making idli and dosa batter, in which one part of black gram is mixed with three or four parts of idli rice to make the batter. Vada or udid vada also contain black gram and are made from soaked batter and deep-fried in cooking oil. The dough is also used in making papadum, in which white lentils are usually used.

In the Telugu states, it is eaten as a sweet in the form of laddoos called Sunnundallu or Minapa Sunnundallu.

Nutrition[edit]

Mungo beans, mature seeds, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,427 kJ (341 kcal)
58.99
Sugars0
Dietary fiber18.3
1.64 g
25.21
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Thiamine (B1)
23%
0.273 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
20%
0.254 mg
Niacin (B3)
9%
1.447 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0%
0.0 mg
Vitamin B6
17%
0.281 mg
Folate (B9)
157%
628 μg
Choline
0%
0 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
11%
138 mg
Iron
42%
7.57 mg
Magnesium
64%
267 mg
Manganese
0%
0 mg
Phosphorus
30%
379 mg
Potassium
33%
983 mg
Sodium
2%
38 mg
Zinc
30%
3.35 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water10.8

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[5] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[6]

Its nutrition numbers when raw differ from when cooked. When raw it contains high levels of protein (25 g/100 g), potassium (983 mg/100 g), calcium (138 mg/100 g), iron (7.57 mg/100 g), niacin (1.447 mg/100 g), thiamine (0.273 mg/100 g), and riboflavin (0.254 mg/100 g).[7] Black gram complements the essential amino acids provided in most cereals and plays an important role in the diets of the people of Nepal and India.[2] Black gram is also very high in folate (628 μg/100 g raw, 216 μg/100 g cooked).[8]

Use in medieval crucible construction[edit]

In medieval India, this bean was used in a technique to facilitate making crucibles impermeable.[9]

Names[edit]

Vigna mungo is known by various names across South and Southeast Asia. Its name in most languages of India derives from Proto-Dravidian *uẓ-untu-, borrowed into Sanskrit as uḍida:[10]

  • Caribbean Hindustani/Fiji Hindi: उरदी दाल (urdi dal)
  • Gujarati: અળદ (aḷad), અડદ (aḍad)
  • Hindi: उड़द दाल (uṛad dāl), उरद दाल (urad dāl)
  • Kannada: ಉದ್ದು (uddu), ಉದ್ದಿನ ಬೇಳೆ (uddina bēḷe)
  • Marathi/Konkani: उडीद (uḍid)
  • Malayalam: ഉഴുന്ന് (uẓhunnu)
  • Tamil: உளுந்து (uḷuntu/ulundu), உளுத்தம் பாருப்பு (ulutham paruppu)
  • Telugu: మినుములు (minumulu) and ఉద్ది పాప్పు (uddi pappu) in Rayalaseema dialect
  • Tulu: ಉರ್ದು ಸಲೈ (urdu salāyi)

Its name in selected Indic languages, however, derives from Sanskrit masa (माष) :

  • Dogri: 𑠢𑠬𑠪𑠹 𑠛𑠮 𑠛𑠬𑠥 / माह् दी दाल (maah di daal)
  • Assamese: মাটিমাহ (matimah), মাটিকলাই (matikolai)
  • Bengali: মাসকালাই ডাল (mashkalai ḍal)
  • Nepali: कालो डाल (kalo daal ), मास (mās)
  • Punjabi : ਮਾਂਹ / ਮਾਸ਼ ਦੀ ਦਾਲ (mānha/māsh di dāl)
  • Urdu: ماش کی دال (māsh ki dāl)

Other names include:

  • Odia: ବିରି ଡାଲି (biri ḍāli)
  • Sinhala : උඳු (undu)
  • Myanmar: မတ်ပဲ (matpe)
  • Vietnamese: (đậu muồng ăn)
  • Thai: ถั่วดำ (thua dam)

Varieties[edit]

Pant Urd 31 (PU-31) Lam Black Gram 884 (LBG 884) Trombay Urd (TU 40)

  • Pant U-13
  • JU-2
  • Type-9
  • Barkha
  • Gwalior-2

Mutant varieties:CO-1 and Sarla. Spring season varieties:Prabha and AKU-4. First urad bean variety developed in – T9(1948).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Post Harvest Profile of Black Gram" (PDF). Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
  3. ^ Brien, Charmaine O' (2013-12-15). The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-93-5118-575-8.
  4. ^ Gazetteer of the Kangra District: 1883. Calcutta Central Press Company Limited. 1883.
  5. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  6. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  7. ^ "Mungo beans, mature seeds, raw". USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. US Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019.
  8. ^ Brink, Martin (2006). Plant resources of tropical Africa 1: cereals and pulses. Wageningen: PROTA Foundation. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-90-5782-170-7.
  9. ^ Vijaya J. Deshpande. "Musavijnana or the ancient science of crucibles" (PDF). Indian National Science Academy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  10. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-02512-6.

Bibliography[edit]

  • H.K. Bakhru (1997). Foods that Heal. The Natural Way to Good Health. Orient Paperbacks. ISBN 978-81-222-0033-1.
  • M. Nitin, S. Ifthekar, M. Mumtaz. 2012. Hepatoprotective activity of Methanolic extract of blackgram. RGUHS J Pharm Sci 2(2):62-67.

External links[edit]